Totalitarian Systems

Totalitarian Systems:

Fascism (1920 – 1945):

  • The fascism was expanded through Italy by Benito Mussolini, “Il Duce” (The Leader).
  • Fascism was an authoritarian or totalitarian nationalist political ideology, and it was created after the 1st World War.
  • Fascists seek to organize a nation according to corporatist perspectives, values, and systems, including the political system and the economy.
  • Fascists believe that a nation is an organic community that requires strong leadership, singular collective identity, and the will and ability to commit violence and wage war in order to keep the nation strong.
  • The State was over the people, the rights and the opportunities were less, and there was lot violence.
  • Supremacy of the Military, even when there were widespread

Domestic problems, the military had a disproportionate amount of government funding, and the domestic agenda was neglected. Soldiers and military service were glamorized.

  • The goals of fascism were:

– Pursue national greatness

– Guide the progress of the Italian community

– Place nation as principal loyalty

– Strong, ordered, efficient, and crime-free society

– Civilize the inferior races

– Defend the purity of Western civilization

  • Women in charge of children and house, “War to male and childbearing to female. “.
  • Capitalism + Socialism

Stalinism (1930 – 1940):

  • It was developed in Russia by Joseph Stalin, “Steel Man”
  • Five Year Plans: All economic activity controlled by the state, with centralized planning by the state planning board – Gosplan. Huge new factories, dams and mines built in the early 1930s.
  • Collectivization of agriculture: All farms in a village amalgamated into a collective – with the collective taking ownership of all land, machinery and livestock: peasants paid a proportion of the profit (if any_ at the end of the year. Caused great hardship and a famine in the 1930s, but produced an excess of grain for sale abroad, to fund the Five Year Plans.
  • Massive education drive, particularly in literacy – creating written forms of many (mostly Central Asian) languages for the first time, and in engineering, vital for the massive industrial programs being built.
  • Control Methods: Fear, propaganda, reward and genuine belief in communism.
  • Goals of Stalinism: Socialism, eliminate all rivalries and oppositions, establish bureaucracy and loyalty to Stalin.
  • Censured information and no free press.

Nazism (1920 – 1945):

  • It was developed in Germany by Hitler, The“Führer”
  • Corporatism – co-opting employers and workers into the state.
  • Authority of leader supersedes the usual mechanisms of state,
    Anti-communism & anti-liberalism.
  • Aggressive militarism, “War is the only hygiene” (Marinetti),
    Extreme nationalism (not necessarily racist nationalism).
  • Idea that their methods represent a ‘higher’ form of organization than democracy, socialism or any other form of government.
    Use of violence & threats to impose their views on society.
  • Concentration Camps.
  • A reaction against the perceived ‘ills’ of the modern world.
  • A belief in the ‘volk’ or people as having some kind of innate mission that sets them apart from other countries.
  • Nazism has the additional feature of racism, a belief that non-Germans are racially inferior – especially Jews, Slavs (Russians, Bulgarians, Ukrainians etc), and gypsies.

Dictatorship of Francisco Franco

The dictatorship of Francisco Franco Bahamonde was from 1939 to 1975 in Spain.

Before the dictatorship it was the Second Spanish Republic (1931-1939), when the republicans have the victory. Also was the Spanich Civil War from 1936 to 1939

There was a fight between the Nationalist and the Republicans. This fights where caused because the failing the implement of reforms, disappointment of peasants and workers, extreme polarization of politics and the church was against the republic

The consequences where the dictatorship of Francisco Franco, the dead of nearly 1 million people and loss of material and financial reserves.

The General Francisco Franco was a nationalist. In the civil war Franco commanded a large group of military. Nationalist won the war. He was the leader of the army. The nationalists made him a provisional president.

Franco is defined mainly by negative traits (anti-liberalism, anti-masonic, anti-marxist).

The dictatorship is divided into 2: Totalitarian Phase (1939 – 1959) and Technocratic Phase (1959 – 1969).

The Falange was a political party similar to contemporary European movements.

The Political-Social Brigade was the secret police, it was an opposition to Franco. His actions were to follow, torture, etc.

The social organization was a Bourgeoisie, it inspire a sense of order and strength. It was a National Movement.

The army was an instrument or repression of society. It controls the country through military service. It was an ideological formation. The army was basically abuse and corruption.

The economy was in a period of greatest growth, it occurs in the 60 and 70. Economic development occurs because the reducing IMR, emigration and the oil crisis in 1973.

There was a large majority of rural population and very weak bourgeois class.

The middle classes were differentiated by their mentality, occupation and social status.

 

Japanese Militarism

The leader of this dictatorship was Hirohito, his Dictator title was Emperor Shōwa.

After World War 1,Japan enjoyed a period of economic prosperity and growing democratic government. However, the Great Depression hit Japan especially hard because its prosperity depended on foreign trade. Like governments elsewhere, the government of Japan seemed unable to solve its economic crisis. Many people turned to the military, which began to take matters into its own hands

Hirohito inherited the throne from his father Yoshihito on December 25, 1926.

Hirohito was Emperor of Japan and was above politics and was considered the son of a god, indeed his voice was considered too sacred to be heard in public, he had no political party.

The ideology was called Japanese militarism, the ideology in the Empire of Japan that militarism should dominate the political and social life of the nation, and that the strength of the military is equal to the strength of a nation.

Tokkō (Tokubetsu Kōgekitai: “Special Attack Unit”), a military unit known for conducting kamikaze attacks.

Tokkō (Tokubetsu Kōtō Keisatsu: “Special Higher Police”), the Japanese equivalent of the Nazi gestapo secret police

The government arrested critics, imposed censorship, and employed a secret police force to hunt down and punish so-called enemies of the state.

The most important social organizations were:

–         Imperial Young Federation

–         “Political Department”

–         Black Dragon

–         Nation Service Society (national government trade union)

–         Double Leaf Society

–         Fighting Corps

The Economic factors:

The American oil embargo caused a crisis in Japan. During the 19th century, Great Power status was considered dependent on resource-rich colonial empires, both as a source of raw materials for military and industrial production, and international prestige.

Due to the lack of resources in Japanese home islands, raw materials such as iron, oil, and coal largely had to be imported. The success of Japan in securing Taiwan (1895) and Korea (1910) had brought Japan primarily agricultural colonies. In terms of resources, the Japanese military looked towards Manchuria’s iron and coal, Indochina’s rubber, and China’s vast resources.

On Japan it was promoted nationalism and anti US Semitism, with extreme nationalists glorified war and empire.

Prepare japan for total war

Kamikazes: Japanese fighter pilots would purposely crash their planes into US ships in what were called Kamikaze attacks.

Atrocities committed by the Japanese army in china

The Japanese were guilty of many war crimes during World War II. This includes the killing of up to 20 million Chinese people. They had a policy called “Kill All, Burn All, and Loot All”. They used biological weapons and tortured prisoners of war. As a result, many Japanese leaders were executed after the war including Prime Minister Hideki Tojo

Military Actions

–         Invasion of Manchuria invasion turning into China

–         Raw materials such as coal and oil.

–         Conquering most of the islands in the Pacific Ocean

–         Battles with US marines in the Pacific Islands

–         Naval battles in the Pacific Ocean

–         Pearl Harbor

After the War, despite efforts to totally militarize Japanese society during the war, Japanese militarism was discredited by the failure of Japan’s military in World War Island by the American occupation.

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