Art and culture (1850-1914)


Official language-russian,tatar and ukranian

Literature-is considered to be among the most influential and developed in the world, with some of the most famous literary Works. By the 1880s Russian literature had begun to change. The age of the great novelists was over and short fiction and poetry became the dominant genres of Russian literature for the next several decades, which later became known as the  Sliver age of russia poetry: Valery Brysov, Andrei Bely and Anna Akhmotova

Philosophy- In its further development, Russian philosophy was always marked by a deep connection to literature and interest in  creativity society, politics and nationalism, the world  and religion were other primary subjects. Notable philosopheres of the late 19th and early 20th centuries include ,  Vladimir Solovyev . In the 20th century Russian philosophy became dominated by Marxism

Architecture -he second half of the 19th century was dominated by the Byzantine and   Russia Revival style (this corresponds to  gothic revival l in Western Europe). Prevalent styles of the 20th century were the Art Nouveau, Constructivism  and the Stalin Emperor style

Handcraft -Russian nesting doll. A set of Matryoshka dolls consist of a wooden figure which can be pulled apart to reveal another figure of the same sort inside. It has in turn another figure inside, and so on

Folk music-Russians have distinctive traditions of folk music . Typical ethnic Russian musical instruments are  gusli balalaika ,zhaleika  balalaika contrabass,   bayan accordion, Gypsy guitar and garmoshka. Folk music had great influence on the Russian classical composers, and in modern times it is a source of inspiration for a number of popular folk band most prominent being Melnitsa. folk songs , as well as patriots songs  of the Soviet era, constitute the bulk of repertoire of the world-renown  red army choir  and other popular Russian ensembles

Classic music -Music in 19th century Russia was defined by the tension between classical composer Mikhail Glinka along with the other members of The Mighty Handful, who embraced Russian national identity and added religious and folk elements to their compositions, and the  Russia music society led by composers Anton and Nikolay Rubinstein, which was musically conservative. The later Romantic tradition of Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, one of the greatest composers of the  romantic era, whose music has come to be known and loved for its distinctly Russian character as well as its rich harmonies and stirring melodies, was brought into the 20th century by Sergei Rachmaninoff, one of the last great champions of the Romantic style of European classical music

Religion-Christianity,  islam , buddhism and Judaism are Russia’s traditional religions


Realist painting-Russia  came into dominance in the 19th century. The realists captured Russian identity in landscapes of wide rivers, forests, and  clearings, as well as vigorous genre scenes and robust portraits of their contemporaries. Other artists focused on social criticism showing the conditions of the poor and caricaturing authority;  critical realism flourished under the reign of Alexander II, with some artists making the circle of human suffering their main theme


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